Monday, September 25, 2017

Brazilian military deployed in Rio favela (Sept. 25, 2017)

Brazil's armed forces were deployed around Rio de Janeiro's Rocinha favela on Friday, after a week of intense gun battles between rival drug gangs and security forces, reports the Guardian. Brazil’s minister of defense, Raul Jungmann, said that 950 soldiers would be deployed in and around the community. Critics say official response was slow, coming a week after dozens of gang members first invaded the favela.

At least four people were reportedly killed in the turf war between drug gangs, reports Reuters. At least 60 criminals are believed to have launched an effort to control the drug trade in the territory. More than 70,000 people live in the territory which is reportedly the site of a conflict between the jailed leader of Amigos dos Amigos, Nem, and his successor in the territory, Rogério 157, reports El País

Rocinha, Brazil's biggest favela, was touted as a success of the UPP police pacification program in 2011, but has now come to symbolize Rio's growing violence problem. Nem was in fact detained as part of the 2011 UPP operative, and the community has also been the site of human rights violations by the new community police, including the enforced disappearance of Amarildo. 

A fiscal crisis in Rio de Janeiro state, affecting police and other essential services, have also complicated the city's security situation, notes Reuters. There were shootouts in four other favelas as well, according to the BBC

Locals have complained that attention is only paid to violence when it threatens wealthier neighborhoods.

Terrified residents watched the battles on TV as they hid from bullets, according to El País.

More than 3,000 children were left without school today, as institutions stayed closed due to safety concerns, reports O Globo.

News Briefs
  • The U.N. finished deactivating a total of 8,994 firearms and more than 38 tons of explosives collected from the FARC, a milestone commemorated in a ceremony with President Juan Manuel Santos on Friday, reports the Associated Press. A team of 15 German specialists needed six weeks to cut through the metal weapons so they can’t be fired ever again. On the same day, the leadership of the new FARC political party paid tribute to a guerrilla leader killed in a bombing raid seven years ago, ordered by Santos. In a 200 person ceremony, the remains of Jorge "Mono Jojoy" Briceno -- real name Victor Julio Suarez Rojas -- were interred near Bogotá, reports AFP.
  • FARC leader Timoleón Jiménez complained to the U.N. verification commission that the government is aiming to disperse and disunite former guerrillas in the process of reintegrating into society. But the former fighting force is also hindered by a focus on mega projects rather than smaller scale efforts, as well as the leaderships' political focus, reports La Silla Vacía.
  • The U.S. included Venezuelan government officials and their immediate family members in a proclamation that extends the existing travel restrictions on citizens from Iran, Libya, Somalia, Syria and Yemen, reports the Miami Herald. In the decree, the White House said Venezuela’s government “fails to share public-safety and terrorism-related information adequately” and has been “not fully cooperative” in receiving deportees. On Friday Canada announced targeted sanctions against 40 senior Venezuelan officials, reports Reuters.
  • International pressure on the Venezuelan government is mounting -- but Washington's efforts to force a transition government are unlikely to succeed if Cuba isn't included in the equation, argues Jorge Castañeda in a New York Times Español op-ed. The Cubans are the only ones with the requisite influence on President Nicolás Maduro, he writes. Such an approach could also benefit Cuba in pushing for a return to the Obama administrations efforts towards normalization, he argues. "Venezuela has much to win from a big negotiation that includes Cuba and the U.S., as does Cuba, the U.S. and the rest of Latin America. For now, perhaps it seems naive to think that Maduro and his allies would accept a deal in which he leaves power, just as he seems to have consolidated it. Nonetheless, sometimes that's the best time to reach an agreement. The situation in Venezuela is unsustainable, and the Cubans, who have always been there, know it. Does Trump?"

  • A powerful 6.1-magnitude aftershock earthquake rocked Mexico on Saturday, causing panic in a country devastated by two earthquakes in short succession that together killed more than 400 people. There was some damage in Oaxaca but no immediate reports of new deaths, reports the Associated Press
  • Rescue teams continued working yesterday, though there are increasingly few hopes of finding people alive in the rubble. Inhabitants are wondering how they will deal with structures left unsound, reports the Wall Street Journal. More than 17,000 were in shelters around the city.
  • Official rescue operations are being called off in Mexico City, causing clashed between security forces and civilians who want to continue searching for victims. Anger at slow official response -- especially in smaller rural communities -- is contrasted with extensive volunteer efforts, now focused on donations and aid for affected communities, reports the Guardian. In fact, there might be too much immediate aide, while victims are worried about longer-term needs, like returning to their homes and having building inspections. People in Mexico City seem to be moving forward, while reconstruction efforts in more rural areas need assistance, reports the Washington Post. Aide is piling up in the city's richer districts, while poorer areas in the outskirts lack supplies, reports Reuters.
  • Civic response has been "extraordinary" and filled gaps in the official response, reported the Guardian in an earlier piece this weekend. Behind accusations of mismanagement are fears that aid could be redirected away from needy communities by criminal groups or political machines. 
  • Even as Mexico City pulls together towards recovery, a "manic dread hangs over the city as people wrestle with the lost comforts they once enjoyed in their neighborhoods and, more broadly, their lives," reports the New York Times.
  • Toughened building codes in Mexico, adopted after a catastrophic earthquake in 1985, were not as effective as believed in preventing destruction this time around, reports the New York Times. Enforcement of the code, among the best in the world, is flawed and uneven. Rather, luck played a hand in sparing destruction last week, as the type of earthquake caused less waves that affected shorter buildings more.
  • Large amounts of U.S. aid started entering Puerto Rico on Saturday, racing to stem a growing crisis in towns left without water, fuel, electricity or phone service after Hurricane Maria last week, reports the Associated Press. The storm wiped out about 80 percent of the crop value in Puerto Rico — making it one of the costliest storms to hit the island’s agriculture industry, reports the New York Times.
  • New York Times video of devastation in Dominica the morning after Hurricane Maria last week.
  • Many hurricane hit Caribbean countries are not sovereign nations, but rather "places with diverse and shifting arrangements with their colonial centers," writes Yarimar Bonilla in an opinion piece for the Washington Post. "Natural disasters and moments of social and political upheaval mark the few occasions when these marginal citizens fleetingly appear in the national consciousness. In these moments, it’s common to hear debate about why these societies remain tied to their colonial centers. ... The most obvious answer is geopolitics: These far-flung territories provide military bases, satellite launching centers and footholds in important terrains. Less obvious is the fact that these societies are protected markets for national corporations. American companies such as Walmart and Walgreens have more stores per square mile in Puerto Rico than anywhere else in the world."
  • Peruvian President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski (PPK's) faces a political dilemma this week: whether to pardon dictator Alberto Fujimori, sentenced to 25 years in jail for crimes against humanity. Fujimori's political party, Popular Will, holds a majority in Congress and has consistently complicated PPK's government over the past year. Last week Kuczynski reshuffled his cabinet after a Popular Will-led no confidence vote in Congress. (See last Monday's briefs.) A pardon could be politically expedient, and cabinet members have indicated it is possible based on the former autocrat's supposed ill health. But critics -- including Marío Vargas Llosa -- say the move would not suffice to appease Popular Will, and would be a poor human rights precedent, argues Carlos Cué in El País.
  • Conservative Chilean presidential candidate Sebastian Piñera promised to move the country towards a fully renewable electricity grid by 2040, reports Reuters.
  • Paraguay is exploring how to turn its status as the region's number one exporter of illicit marijuana into a medical cannabis exporter, reports EFE.
  • Few chocolate addicts suspect the constant threat to Latin America's cacao crops, worsened by a heavy dependence on a few varieties susceptible to the same blights, reports the New York Times. A combination of pathogens, environmental risks, and low profits and yields might signal a chocolate shortage on the horizon, even as demand increases from new markets in China and India.
-- 

Friday, September 22, 2017

Mexicans critical of officials after earthquake (Sept. 22, 2017)

News Briefs
  • The official death count of the 7.1 magnitude earthquake that struck Mexico this week is now 273, and officials said 1,900 people had been injured, while thousands have lost their homes. Though much of the media focus has been on destruction in Mexico City, the states of Morelos and Puebla have been particularly badly hit. The New York Times features a piece on the Morelos town of Jojutla, where nearly half of the 60,000 inhabitant town's structures were leveled by the quake. The entire town was basically destroyed, an official told the Wall Street Journal.
  • And citizens are critical of the military, which took over rescue operations initiated by volunteers, but reportedly began to demolish piles of rubble just 72 hours after the earthquake, reports the Guardian. Yesterday evening President Enrique Peña Nieto said search-and-rescue missions are continuing in collapsed buildings. Foreign rescue teams arrived in Mexico to help in efforts, reports the Wall Street Journal. Rescuers believe that people may still be trapped alive in as many as 10 buildings in Mexico City alone, reports the BBC.
  • Hope at the story of a 12-year-old girl supposedly alive under the rubble of a collapsed school turned to anger when officials admitted the story was false, reports the Guardian. The narrative of Frida Sofía, who rescuers were inching towards in the earthquake destruction of the Enrique Rebsámen school had become symbolic of a nation gathering together in the wake of a natural disaster. That it turned out to be false could now become a new symbol -- one representing the disgust many Mexicans feel towards government officials and mainstream media frequently accused of faking statistics. The outcome could "could turn into an emotional whipsaw for a country that had been fixated for over 24 hours on the search for a missing student following a devastating earthquake," reports the Washington Post. Some rescue volunteers remain convinced there are victims trapped in the school's debris, reports the Wall Street JournalProceso has a skeptical piece detailing the "reality TV" media show, especially pushed by Televisa with fawning coverage of official rescue efforts. (See yesterday's post.)
  • Mexico's leading political parties agreed to dedicate a portion of the public funds assigned to their 2018 campaigns to help with earthquake reconstruction, reports Animal Político. The donation follows a social media campaign calling for #PartidosDenSuDinero. 
  • Wars rarely end in clear victories or defeats nowadays, ongoing dialogue is really the only way to prevent ongoing conflict, argues Colombian President Juan Manuel Santos in a New York Times Español op-ed. Listing several insights gleaned from the peace process with the FARC, he notes that "the perfect peace does not exist. After all, peace is made with enemies, not friends." He refers to the polemic issue of transitional justice in Colombia, which critics say is too lax in cases of crimes against humanity. "Like many Colombians, I too would have preferred more severe penalties. Nonetheless, I think in the future our children will be grateful we chose the path of a careful equilibrium between peace and justice."
  • Former Colombian Supreme Court Judge Francisco Javier Ricaurte Gómez was arrested earlier this week on charges of criminal association, bribery, influence peddling and abuse of privileged information. It's part of a larger investigation into an alleged network of high-level judicial officials accused of blocking progress in cases in exchange for money. Revelations appear to indicate other high-level arrests are imminent. "In addition to involving figures at the highest echelons of the judiciary, this unfolding case is concerning because the allegations suggest the repetition of a consistent pattern of corruption involving several top judicial officials, which could point to a long-running scheme operated by a structured network," explains InSight Crime.
  • At least 10 people have died in Puerto Rico as a result of Hurricane María, which continued to cause rain on the island. Rain and flooding could also trigger mudslides, reports the BBC, which reports a death toll of 13. An estimated 3.4 million people were left without power, and the territory's energy grid was largely destroyed, reports the New York Times. The destruction compounds an already complicated situation for the island, including an extended debt and bankruptcy crisis, and recovery from the recent destruction of Hurricane Irma.
  • Hurricane warnings are in place for British territory the Turks and Caicos and the south-eastern Bahamas, where María is heading next, reports the BBC.
  • Irma destruction in Havana worsened an already grave problem of unsound housing, reports the Miami Herald. "... Falling architectural elements and collapsing buildings that splay bricks and timbers into the street are an all too common occurrence in Havana where some of the buildings people inhabit are centuries old and in poor repair. A good rain can cause a derrumbe (collapse)." Of the nearly 4,300 homes damaged in the capital, the government said 157 dwellings collapsed and were total losses, putting more pressure on Havana’s creaky and aged housing stock. There were 986 partial collapses, 818 homes lost their roofs, and 1,555 homes reported partial roof damage.
  • A bipartisan group of U.S. lawmakers questioned recently approved (and retracted) reforms to Guatemala's Penal Code on a visit to Guatemala City yesterday, reports El Periódico. Lawmakers were unable to carry out a planned visit to Guatemala's Congress due to ongoing protests outside the building. They also met with organizations of civil society campaigning against impunity in Guatemala, including Acción Ciudadana, Justicia Ya, and the Fundación Myrna Mack. (See yesterday's post.)
  • A branch of the Guatemalan Public Ministry dedicated to money laundering cases requested information regarding President Jimmy Morales from the national electoral authority yesterday, reports El Periódico. The request is part of an investigation into sources of funding for his 2015 presidential campaign.
  • The son-in-law of a key witness in the case of the San Blas massacre in El Salvador was killed, reports El Faro. Officials have offered protection for Consuelo Hernández, whose son was killed in a police raid, but can only house part of her family in a safe house. A sentence is expected next week in the case of 8 police in the case of alleged extrajudicial execution. (See post for July 18, 2016.)
  • El Salvador's governing FMLN party is heading towards a break with San Salvador's mayor Nayib Bukele, reports El Faro
  • U.S. officials have pointed to Colombia's cocaine output boom as a driver for U.S. increased consumption, while Colombian officials say production has been pushed by increased local and international demand. In fact, it's not at all clear that consumption has increased, "or that there is a causal link between production and demand within an illegal market in which an array of factors are at work," reported La Silla Vacía in June. (InSight Crime has the English translation.) "This is not to understate the serious public health issue that drug consumption represents. But oversimplifications should be avoided, especially when voiced in support of failed, repressive policy measures, such as coca eradication via aerial fumigation and harsher criminal sentences," warn Juan Carlos Garzón and José Luis Bernal.
  • Costa Rican authorities appear to have uncovered a major international organ trafficking ring operating in the country. " Costa Rica may be transforming from a tiny player in the global organ trafficking trade into an "epicenter" for illegal organ trafficking, in large part due to corruption that has helped fuel a sophisticated "transplant tourism" industry as well as the global imbalance between the limited supply of kidneys and the high demand for transplants," reports InSight Crime.
  • The closure of a Brazilian art exhibit featuring LGBTQ-themed work -- "the Queer Museum" -- "is only the latest conservative coup in a country that has been tacking markedly rightward since 2013," argues Marcia Tiburi in the Conversation. "Rather than ask what art’s social function is, why not query the social role of groups that, like Free Brazil, censor art? This reframing exposes why fascist movements have always sought to quash art when it makes people think. To better manage citizens’ desires – including the desire to push back against political overreach – authoritarian states must repress analytical and critical thinking."
  • Happy Friday: Radio-loving Latin Americans have jumped on the streaming bandwagon, and growth of Latin music is far outpacing that of other genres, reports the Economist. "As streaming services have tracked and monetised, labels have noted Latin music’s climb up the charts. ... Record labels are eager to tap a fan base that includes Latin Americans, Latinos in America (one of the country’s fastest-growing ethnic groups) and millions of teenagers worldwide drawn to reggaeton by “Despacito” and “Mi Gente”."

Thursday, September 21, 2017

Guatemalans demand Morales', lawmakers' resignation (Sept. 21, 2017)

Thousands of Guatemalans protested yesterday against government impunity, demanding the resignation of President Jimmy Morales, the 107 lawmakers who voted to relax anti-corruption legislation last week, and in favor of the fight against impunity, reports El Periódico. It's the latest move in an ongoing struggle between anti-impunity efforts --  led by the Public Ministry and the U.N.'s anti-corruption commission -- and entrenched structural corruption in the political elite. Yesterday's protests deepened national turmoil, but also potentially pointed to how "a wave of domestic pressure could shape the outcome," according to InSight Crime.

"Guatemala needs another plaza, because nobody else fits in this one," tweeted El Faro journalist Carlos Dada. Unarmed contingents of National Civil Police officers were deployed outside various public buildings, including the Government Ministry and the National Palace of Culture to provide security, reports EFE.

Police estimates of participants range from 50 to 125 thousand, reports Nómada -- the largest outpouring since protests in 2015 led to the ouster of then President Otto Pérez Molina, charged with leading a massive customs graft scheme. Organized by Justicia Ya and the Asociación de Estudiantes Universitarios (AEU) de la Usac, yesterday's national strike should be considered a success, according to Nómada, which notes that Morales' support among legislators is waning.

Today lawmakers will vote to resume the discussion over whether to lift Morales' immunity from prosecution -- in relation to allegations of campaign finance irregularities -- after voting last week to protect him, reports Nómada.

Public pressure is mounting, and "if sustained, protests could even lead to the toppling of Morales, much like his predecessor," argues InSight. Anti-government protests have been held almost daily since Sept. 15, notes TeleSur.

Members of several organizations of civil society presented a request for a preliminary trial against lawmakers that voted for polemic reforms to the criminal code, potentially shielding themselves for jail sentences for corruption, reports El Periódico. (See Sept. 12's post.)

And this week several key cabinet members resigned, further deepening the political crisis. (See yesterday's briefs.)

What happens now will "determine, in good measure, whether Guatemala advances towards democracy and transparency or regresses to authoritarianism and impunity," argues Martín Rodríguez Pellecer, Nómada's editor, in a New York Times Español op-ed. The country is in the midst of a battle between the interests of mafias representing the military, politicians, much of the media and some big businesses, up against the citizens battling corruption and impunity through organizations of civil society, universities, the private sector and other media outlets. "The problem is that both sides no longer fit together on the street. Or the corrupt mafias go to jail, or they will end up imposing themselves and jailing those of us who fight against corruption."

Morales congratulated protesters on their pacific demonstration, but ignored the calls for his resignation, reports El Periódico separately. He called for a dialogue to prioritize an agenda of national interests.

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Collapsed Mexican school symbol of earthquake tragedy

The tragic earthquake in Mexico this week has brought out citizen volunteers from all walks of life -- pulling victims from the rubble, distributing supplies, and helping organize shelters and assistance, reports Animal Político. The spirit of solidarity is transcending Mexico’s usually rigid class divisions, according to the Washington Post. Telecom companies enabled free text messaging and provided Internet service at points across the city. Private car services, as well as public buses and subways, offered free rides.

"Disasters bring out the best in Mexicans," according to the Economist. "Within minutes, ordinary people clutching buckets to collect rubble dashed to help. Thousands laboured alongside rescue workers. They directed traffic and donated food and water. Though in smaller towns there were fears of looting, Mexicans showed that they are not the “bad hombres” of Mr Trump’s imagination."

"Nothing provokes so much aging in such a short time as an earthquake," writes Carlos Manuel Álvarez in a New York Times Español op-ed detailing his experience in Mexico City helping rescue efforts in his neighborhood. "The convulsion is sudden, it comes to the city from the mouth of the stomach."

In the midst of so much destruction, the story of the Enrique Rebsámen school which collapsed and killed at least 30 children, has become a painful symbol of the disaster. Rescue workers appear to have located a girl buried in rubble but still alive, reports the New York Times. "The search for the girl known as Frida Sofia became the top priority at the school, and maybe for all of Mexico," reports the Washington Post. But hope is starting to fade, reports the Wall Street JournalAnimal Político details the focused work of marines and volunteers in the area. 

Mexico City is a particularly bad place to be in an earthquake, because it sits on a former lake bed and near an array of tectonic plates that crash into each other. The consistency of the soft soil amplifies tremors, explains the Wall Street Journal. Most of the affected buildings, about 38 in the capital collapsed, were located in areas of the former lakebed. Areas of the city and surrounding suburbs located on bedrock fared much better. Shorter, older structures -- built before Mexico's dramatically improved building codes in the wake of the 1985 earthquake -- were also more affected. That the destruction was far less than in 1985 is a small consolation, pointing to the success of the building code measures instituted since, notes the Economist.

Mexico itself is prone to strong earthquakes because it is in a so-called subduction zone, notes the New York Times in a piece that explains the term. The Guardian delves even deeper into earthquake science and compares those caused by ruptures within tectonic plates (like this one) and those that result from clashes between tectonic plates.

The New York Times has a list of organizations for those looking to make donations. The Topos, a volunteer force renowned around the world for helping to rescue quake victims. They were founded in the wake of the 1985 earthquake, and are in full force helping in Mexico City, reports the Wall Street Journal. They use picks, shovels and small drills to tunnel into rubble, eschewing heavy machinery that could kill survivors.

As of yesterday the official death toll stood at 230, reports the Guardian.

News Briefs
  • Hurricane María crossed the Virgin Islands as a Category 5 storm, slammed into Puerto Rico where it left all residents without electricity, and is now predicted to pass north of the Dominican Republic, though downgraded to a Category 2, reports the New York Times. Relief agencies reached Dominica yesterday, where officials estimated at least 70 percent of the island's structures sustained storm damage, reports the Washington Post. (See Tuesday's post and yesterday's briefs.)
  • Trump's "rhetorical attacks and financial sanctions against the Venezuelan government suggest a shift toward coercive diplomacy aimed at achieving regime change, but U.S. power faces significant limits in the conflict-ridden country," according to Michael McCarthy at the Aula Blog. "While the United States, Europeans, and Latin Americans are operating in loose formation – with Washington ratcheting up pressure while everyone else scrambles for negotiations – China and Russia are sticking to their strategic game.  As Maduro’s main financial backers, they are betting talks can stabilize the situation bit by bit.  They may kick in some more financial assistance if and when Maduro restores some stability by holding peaceful regional elections, delivering on the dialogue, and making large upcoming debt payments.  But while there is some basis for the geopolitical schadenfreude of Beijing and Moscow making it harder for Washington in Caracas, there are also signs that both have buyer’s remorse.  While they prefer Maduro stay afloat, they seem unlikely to extend loans that help stabilize the economy unconditionally."
  • Brazil's anti-corruption crusade is at a turning point. Former Attorney General Rodrigo Janot's term ended last weekend, and his parting shot was accusing President Michel Temer of leading a criminal corruption gang within the government. "The prosecutor has deepened suspicions about the president’s conduct while leaving room for doubt. People who feel threatened by the broader Lava Jato (Car Wash) corruption probes are seizing on what they claim are weaknesses in Mr Janot’s case to call into question the entire process. Now Brazilians wonder whether Mr Janot’s successor, Raquel Dodge (pronounced “dodgy” in Brazil), will pursue it with the same zeal," reports the Economist.
  • A majority of Brazil’s Supreme Court rejected a request by Temer's lawyers to suspend the criminal charges filed against him, but the decision may actually favor the president by leading to a swift resolution, according to Bloomberg.
  • Thousands of Haitian protesters demanded the resignation of President Jovenel Moïse after a national budget proposal viewed as unfavorable for the country's poorest, reports AFP.
  • Honduran President Juan Orlando Hernández told Reuters that the Trump administration’s effort to combat violence and poverty in Central America will not mean greater militarization in his country.
  • A union representing more than half of Avianca's pilots declared a 60 strike, leading the Colombian airline to cancel nearly a hundred flights so far, reports the Wall Street Journal.

Wednesday, September 20, 2017

Over 200 dead in Mexican earthquake (Sept. 20, 2017)

At least 217 people were killed in a 7.1 magnitude earthquake that rocked Mexico, flattening buildings in the capital. The death toll was expected to continue rising as emergency crews and citizens attempted to rescue people from the rubble. 

The powerful earthquake hit shortly after noon yesterday, on the anniversary of a 1985 quake that devastated Mexico City and killed 5,000 people, reports the Guardian. It was the second large earthquake to hit the country in two weeks, and appeared to have triggered an eruption of Mexico’s Popocatépetl volcano.

Mexico City’s mayor, Miguel Ángel Mancera, said buildings collapsed at 44 different locations in the capital, with many high rises swaying after the quake, reports the New York Times. The New York Times has a map and photos of the destruction.


Citizens worked throughout the night, often without light, and with their bare hands attempting to rescue people from the rubble, reports the Washington Post. The plight of a collapsed school where over 20 children were killed has particularly horrified people.

Yesterday, President Enrique Peña Nieto urged calm in a video message, saying "the priority at this moment is to keep rescuing people who are still trapped and to give medical attention to the injured people."

Mexico is particularly vulnerable to earthquakes, and the one in 1985 wound up sparking major political change, reports the Washington Post separately. "Many people were incensed by the lackluster response of the long-ruling Institutional Revolutionary Party (PRI), and real political opposition formed to challenge Mexico's entrenched one-party system, ultimately leading to the PRI's ouster in 2000."

News Briefs
  • U.S. President Donald Trump used his address to the U.N. General Assembly to threaten Venezuela with "further action" if the government "persists on its path to impose authoritarian rule," reports the Guardian. However he stopped short of repeating threats of a military operation, reports the Wall Street Journal.
  • Russia will supply around 600,000 tonnes of wheat to Venezuela over the next year, reports Reuters.
  • Caribbean leaders appealed to international organizations to provide funding to help recover from climate-change wrought disasters in their region. U.N. Secretary General António Guterres convened a special session yesterday, in which leaders called for the General Assembly to rethink humanitarian aid. "They asserted that because climate change is fueling more intense storms, vulnerable countries must have a better way to recover than to beg for money with each new devastation," reports the New York Times. (See yesterday's post.)
  • "While it doesn’t make for catchy headlines, the reality is that as the Caribbean has been hit by stronger and stronger storms in recent decades, while state capacity to respond to natural disasters has diminished due to increased levels of debt, reduced government revenue and lower development aid. This has led to skyrocketing rates of food insecurity, poverty, and unemployment. On their own, the Caribbean cannot adapt fast enough to face the relentless destruction brought about when climate change is thrown into the mix," argues Kevin Edmonds in NACLA, criticizing international coverage of Irma's aftermath in the Caribbean.
  • Cuba is postponing municipal elections -- originally scheduled for October -- by a month due to the destruction wrought by Hurricane Irma, reports Reuters. It was not immediately clear whether yesterday's announcement would also have the effect of delaying provincial and national elections. President Raúl Castro has promised to pass on the mantle of presidency next year, the first time in 40 years that the country is led by a non-Castro. (See Feb. 22's briefs.)
  • At least 6 people were killed by Hurricane María in Dominica, and Puerto Rico is bracing for a direct hit by the Category 5 storm, reports the Guardian. (See yesterday's post.)
  • Guatemalans are gearing up for a national strike today, organized against government impunity by #JusticiaYa. Organizers have emphasized the protest is apolitical and asked demonstrators to remain peaceful, reports El Periódico. Hundreds of protesters were already gathering this morning, reports Prensa Libre.
  • In the midst of an ongoing political crisis, three cabinet ministers resigned, saying they have been unable to carry out their programs, reports El Periódico. One of the three, Francisco Rivas Lara, the Ministro de Gobernación, is considered a key ally of the CICIG and the Public Ministry, who are pitted against President Jimmy Morales, reports Plaza Pública. Rivas remained in the government after Morales' failed attempt to kick out U.N. anti-corruption commission head Iván Velásquez three weeks ago, in part at the request of civil society organizations who sought to ensure guarantees for protests, according to Plaza Pública.
  • Speaking at the U.N. yesterday, Morales pledged the firmest intention to strengthen and support the International Commission against Impunity of Guatemala (CICIG), while stressing that no institution should interfere in the country’s administration of justice.
  • A Brazilian federal judge approved "conversion therapy" for gay people, a widely discredited treatment aimed at "curing" homosexuals. Waldemar de Carvalho's decision overruled a 1999 decision by the Federal Council of Psychology that forbade psychologists from offering such "treatment," reports the Guardian. The judge  backed a psychologist who had her licence revoked for offering so-called "conversion therapy," reports the BBC. The decision provoked widespread backlash and fears of a conservative turn against progressive social policies.
  • A huge nature reserve in Brazil's Amazon rainforest that the government wants to open to foreign mining companies already suffers from illegal mining activity, according to Greenpeace. Investigators flying over the Renca reserve found at least 14 illegal mines and eight clandestine landing strips used by miners, reports the AFP.
  • Bolivian President Evo Morales is pushing ahead with a polemic road project through the protected Tipnis reserve, expected to have grave repercussions for the environment and indigenous groups that live there. Critics say the road serves the interests of coca cultivators, and that the president is courting their support ahead of an attempt to run for office for a fourth term, argues Raúl Peñarada U in a New York Times Español op-ed. The project would be destructive for the fresh water system in Bolivia, as well as for the significant biodiversity in the area. (See Sept. 11's briefs.) Activists are now focusing on attempting to shift the project to circumvent the national park in the east, reducing the potential devastation. 
  • The U.S. is contemplating closing its Havana embassy in the wake of mysterious "attacks" on personnel (see Monday's briefs), but such a move makes little diplomatic sense and would "seriously damage U.S. interests," argues William M. LeoGrande in the Huffington Post. Experts don't believe the Cuban government is responsible for the sonic incidents that seem to have harmed U.S. and Canadian staff. "Regardless, closing the U.S. embassy in Havana would be a self-inflicted wound, reversing not just Obama’s policy, but the policies of the previous six presidents, three of them Republicans, all of whom saw the value in maintaining the U.S. diplomatic mission that President Jimmy Carter established in 1977 as an Interests Section (one step short of a full-fledged embassy)."
  • The United States and Cuba held their sixth Bilateral Commission meeting — the first of the Trump presidency. The Cuban delegation complained that the meeting occurred against the backdrop of a "reversal" in Cuba-U.S. relations. It also protested the U.S. president's “the disrespectful, unacceptable and meddling statements" at the U.N., reports the Miami Herald.
  • The ongoing drama between Ecuadorean President Lenín Moreno and his predecessor, Rafael Correa, continues. Moreno accused his former boss of planting a hidden video camera in his office so that he could spy on him remotely, reports the Associated Press.
  • An average of one person per day died in detention or in encounters with security forces in Buenos Aires province last year, according to report by a local organization. The Comisión Provincial por la Memoria (CPM) said at least 20 percent of the 109 deaths from police firearms were minors, reports La Nación.
  • Climate change is also affecting farmers in Argentina, where increased rainfall in some areas and droughts in others are wrecking agricultural output, reports Bloomberg.
  • Confident of a win in next month's mid-term elections, the Argentine government is preparing bills aimed at enticing investment, including cutting subsidies and reforming the fiscal and tax systems, reports Bloomberg.
  • Uruguay announced a change to its legal marijuana market, in response to banking obstacles created by international financial laws prohibiting money tied to the drug. Pharmacies selling the product have faced threats to have their accounts shut down. So instead Uruguay will set up shops to sell marijuana for cash, reports the Associated Press.
  • Peru’s opposition Popular Force party opened a disciplinary investigation against Kenji Fujimori, son of jailed former dictator Alberto Fujimori, reports EFE. The probe was initiated to address Kenji Fujimori’s open defiance of the party’s decisions, said Popular Force officials. The younger Fujimori is seeking a pardon for his father, who  has been serving a 25-year jail sentence for crimes against humanity.
  • Mexican leftist Andres Manuel Lopez Obrador, who leads the National Regeneration Movement (MORENA) party, is the front-runner ahead of next year’s presidential election, according to a newspaper poll published on Monday, reports Reuters.
  • A new poll found that former Brazilian President Luiz Inácio Lula da Silva remains strongly in the lead for next year's presidential elections, with a projected 32 percent of the vote, compared to just under 20 percent for his nearest rival, the right-wing dictatorship apologist Jair Bolsonaro, reports AFP.

Tuesday, September 19, 2017

María slams Caribbean, will hinder recovery from Irma (Sept. 19, 2017)

Hurricane Maria devastated Dominica yesterday. The storm, which went from a Category 1 to a 5 in just one day, caused devastating and "mind boggling," according to Prime Minister Roosevelt Skerrit, who communicated his experience live on Facebook. "So far the winds have swept away the roofs of almost every person I have spoken to or otherwise made contact with," he wrote, after detailing how the winds tore off the roof of his residence, reports the Guardian. There was no official news of deaths yet. The immediate focus today is on rescuing people Skerrit said.

The arrival of María so soon after Hurricane Irma already devastated the region could complicate disaster recovery and much needed aid, reports the New York Times. María was expected to hit the British Virgin Islands and Puerto Rico today, islands still working to restore services and even food supplies, reports the Guardian separately. Guadeloupe, which is serving as a base for relief operations and a sanctuary for St Martin refugees is also is also in the storms path, notes the New York Times in a separate piece. The constant onslaught also sparks resistance among residents who are forced to evacuate and prepare for disaster repeatedly. In other cases, preparations for Irma are serving residents now in Maria's path.

The number of storms in the Caribbean this year is not unheard of, but is higher than average so far this year. A typical season has 12 named storms, six of which become hurricanes, with three of those becoming major hurricanes. So far this season, which is more than halfway through, there have been 13 named storms, including seven hurricanes, four which have been major, according to the NYT.

Irma killed nearly 50 people two weeks ago, and destroyed thousands of homes and livelihoods. In all, rebuilding the ruins in the Caribbean, including Puerto Rico, will cost nearly $13bn, according to the Centre for Disaster Management and Risk Reduction Technology in Germany. As these storms become increasingly likely, rebuilding will have to take such disasters into account -- especially considering that tourism is the economic lifeblood of the region, argues the Economist.

Several factors play against such preparedness, writes Sarah Maslin: weather patterns are changing more quickly than expected, short-term thinking often encourages economic growth over sustainability, and entrenched poverty in the region's countries. Donors are quick to alleviate immediate disasters, but often fail to help prepare for them in advance, she notes. 

And when it comes to climate change, it's always hard to pin responsibility on any one factor: "Rich countries have resisted the idea that they bear unique responsibility for climate change and should pay compensation to countries that suffer from it. Besides, it is hard to figure out what part of the damage from bad weather comes from global warming, what nature would have done anyway and how much responsibility developing countries bear for poor planning and shoddy construction."

News Briefs
  • NAFTA discussions are moving forward at "warp speed," it's just not very clear where they're going and whether they'll get there in time, said Robert Lighthizer, the United States trade representative. The Trump administration has promised to substantially change the agreement, which governs most of North America's economy, in record time. Elections next year could complicate legislative approval in all three countries, so negotiators are aiming to have a new agreement by the end of the year. But some of the more ambitious proposals, such as setting new requirements for the use of American-made goods and lowering barriers to exporting American agricultural products are meeting with resistance from Mexico and Canada, reports the New York Times. And a new U.S. proposal requiring countries to reaffirm the pact every five years (a "sunset clause") could complicate long-term planning for businesses.
  • Trump said that Venezuelan President Nicolás Maduro is responsible for the country's "growing crisis” and that the U.S. was ready to take further action to ensure democracy was restored in the Latin American nation, reports Politico. The U.S. President spoke at a dinner with Latin American presidents, held on the sidelines of this week's U.N. General Assembly meeting. Last night's dinner included President Michel Temer of Brazil, President Jose Manuel Santos of Colombia, President Juan Carlos Varela of Panama and Vice President Gabriela Michetti of Argentina, along with other officials and diplomats from the region. (See yesterday's post.) Trump is expected to call out Venezuela in his address to the U.N. today, reports the Associated Press.
  • Venezuela’s opposition blamed the government for the death of a sick activist in detention, saying he was framed and then denied medical help, reports Reuters. (See yesterday's post.)
  • A U.S. security expert revived allegations that a Venezuela-owned company in Nicaragua may have laundered money for Colombia's demobilizing FARC guerrillas in testimony before the US Senate, reports InSight Crime. Douglas Farah, the president of the national security consulting firm IBI Consultants, pointed to ALBA Petróleos and Albanisa, two subsidiaries of Venezuela's state-owned oil company Petróleos de Venezuela S.A. (PdVSA), which operate in El Salvador and Nicaragua, respectively as potential money laundering vehicles for the FARC. The allegations are not new, notes InSight, which spoke with Farah about the allegations. "One of the clearest indicators [of illicit activity] is when things make no economic sense," Farah told InSight Crime. "What we saw in Nicaragua was this company [Albanisa] suddenly flushed with cash and setting up a whole host of companies overnight, but the purpose of these activities can't be generating profit; it is money laundering. Money laundering doesn't require investment to make profit, just to move large amounts of money though the system," Farah told InSight.
  • Guatemalan President Jimmy Morales will also address the U.N. General Assembly today, and is expected to mention the U.N. backed anti-corruption commission that has accused him of involvement in illicit campaign financing, reports El Periódico. (See yesterday's briefs.) Government sources say Morales will not meet with U.N. Secretary General António Guterres. Morales is attempting to oust CICIG head Iván Velásquez, who Guterres has supported.
  • Raquel Dodge swore in as Brazil's new prosecutor general, assuming office just after her predecessor accused President Michel Temer and the country's two previous presidents of commanding criminal networks. "Now, the entire nation will be watching to see whether Ms. Dodge pushes forward with the judiciary’s crackdown on political corruption, or dials back the pressure in the interest of political stability," reports the New York Times.
  • U.S. diplomat William R. Brownfield is stepping down from the State Department after 40 years in foreign service focused on Latin America, reports the Washington Post. The departure comes at a poor moment for U.S. counter-narcotics efforts abroad, and as a cocaine production surge in Colombia affects relations with the U.S. "Colombia’s drug-production relapse has clearly weighed on Brownfield, and he said whoever succeeds him will have to cope with both a flood of methamphetamine and opioid trafficking from Mexico as well as the latest new surge of South American cocaine," reports the Washington Post.
  • A Colombian court sentenced 32 former paramilitary leaders for crimes committed under the banner of the former Autodefensas Unidas de Colombia - AUC. The case shows "that justice can be achieved under special frameworks created by peace agreements between the government and armed groups, even if it involves lengthy and complicated judicial proceedings" reports InSight Crime. The cases examined more than 250 homicides, over 320 incidents of forced disappearances, 213 incidents of forced displacement, as well as incidents of illegal recruitment and gender-based violence -- all committed between 1999 and 2006.
  • Bolivian lawmakers from the ruling MST party have asked the country's Constitutional Court to allow President Evo Morales to run for a fourth term, despite a referendum last year in which citizens rejected changing the constitution to remove presidential term limits, reports the BBC.
  • Venezuela's crime surge is caused, in part, by institutional weakness and disruption caused by: a surge in oil income, a revolutionary form of governance, and militarized policing, argues David Smilde in the latest issue of NACLA. In the same issue, Rebecca Hanson moderated a round-table discussion that pointed to militarized policing initiatives such as the Operación Liberación del Pueblo as a motor of violence in the current context. (See Venezuelan Politics and Human Rights for those pieces.)
  • Health and environmental concerns are pushing textile artists around the world back towards natural dyes. A New York Times feature looks at the Mexican village of Teotitlán del Valle a historical weaving center where some families are working to preserve traditional dying methods.

Monday, September 18, 2017

Venezuelan gov't, opposition talking about negotiations (Sept. 18, 2017)

Venezuela's government and opposition coalition are having pre-negotiation discussions on several key issues, though the talks are flying well beneath the radar for now, reports Venezuelan Politics and Human Rights

Both sides sent delegations to Santo Domingo to start discussing a negotiated solution to the country's political crisis, reports Reuters. Though President Nicolás Maduro predicted the foreign mediated efforts would soon yield an agreement, the opposition MUD coalition stressed that the talks were only "exploratory" and would not proceed without firm guarantees of democratic change. After failed negotiations last year, the opposition is seeking "iron clad" guarantees this time around, including a date for next year's presidential election, freedom for jailed political activists, and respect for the opposition-led National Assembly.

Information is limited because the opposition paid heavy political costs for failed dialogue processes in 2014 and 2016, notes Geoff Ramsey at Venezuelan Politics and Human Rights. But the MUD's demands also include guarantees for a fair electoral process for next year's presidential elections. And they stated support for any eventual agreement to be approved by popular referendum.

Dominican Republic President Danilo Medina said Mexico, Chile, Bolivia and Nicaragua would join a new round of talks on Sept. 27, with two other countries to be defined. The Democratic Unity coalition said on Saturday one of those was Paraguay. Mexico and Chile have been critical of the government, while Bolivia and Nicaragua are staunch allies, notes Reuters.

It's not clear if the government and opposition delegates spoke face-to-face or exchanged messages through Medina and former Spanish Prime Minister Jose Luis Zapatero, reports the Associated Press.

This weekend U.N. Secretary General António Guterres congratulated Medina for his leadership on the issue, reports EFE.

Unlike on previous occasions, the Maduro government might be pressured into participating in good faith by the threat of potential European Union sanctions, notes Ramsey.

On Sunday, Maduro claimed there have been hundreds of meetings between the government and opposition leaders, saying key leaders including National Assembly President Julio Borges, MUD Secretary General Henry Ramos Allup, Leopoldo López (who is still under house arrest), reports Efecto Cocuyo. He said he opened the possibility of incorporating between 50 and 100 opposition representatives to the Constituent Assembly, an offer eventually rejected by the opposition.

López, who is prohibited from speaking to the media, denied the meetings vía Twitter, but said he favored a negotiated solution, reports Efecto Cocuyo.

Separately, OAS Secretary General Luis Almagro has appointed three international experts to assess whether the situation in Venezuela should be referred to the International Criminal Court (ICC) for consideration. Information gathering will be supervised by former ICC prosecutor Luis Moreno Ocampo. The process will include public hearings to be conducted at OAS headquarters and information submitted by more than 50 organizations that have been conducting research and/or investigating circumstances of the crisis in Venezuela. The information obtained will contribute to a final report, to be reviewed by the independent panel for recommendation to the Secretary General. The OAS cannot institutionally send a case to the ICC, but any one of its 28 member states can, reports EFE. In the 15 years the ICC has functioned, no country has denounced another yet, as permitted by the Rome Statute.

Trump is reportedly having a LatAm dinner in Trump Tower tonight, ahead of this week's United Nations General Assembly meeting. The presidents of Brazil and Colombia will be present, and Venezuela's crisis is one of the main topics on the agenda, reports El País.

Opposition party Primero Justicia denounced that a jailed official died under arrest with the Sebin, after not being permitted access to medical attention, reports Efecto Cocuyo.

Shortages in Venezuela have eased somewhat, but price-controlled basic items remain unobtainable, and the prices for the rest remain out of reach for most people, reports Bloomberg.

News Briefs
  • Social protests in Guatemala forced legislators to backtrack on an ill-advised attempt to shield themselves from potential corruption sentences on Friday, reports El País. Lawmakers unanimously voted to repeal measures modifying the Penal Code that would have allowed jail sentences of up to 10 years for corruption to be commuted with a fine. But the apology wasn't enough, and lawmakers went from congratulating themselves on "listening to the people" to having to be evacuated from Congress by security officials amid crowds demanding their resignation, reports Nómada. Though lawmakers found themselves confined to the building, the protesters were mostly peaceful and family oriented, notes Carlos Dada in El Faro. (See Friday's post.)
  • But President Jimmy Morales isn't backing down from his conflict with the U.N. anti-corruption commission head Iván Velásquez. Guatemala activated a conflict mediation mechanism in the U.N., the formal way of attempting to force Velásquez's ouster, reports EFE. The latest move comes after a failed attempt to expel Velásquez unilaterally was blocked by Guatemala's Constitutional Court and heavily criticized internationally. (See Aug. 30's post.) 
  • Morales, who is having a "political suicide" month, as El País puts it, released a video in which he promised to return about $70,000 in monthly payments from the Armed Forces, reported on last week by Nómada. (See Friday's post.)
  • Guatemala's political upheaval comes just two years after a government was ousted on charges of corruption and a non-political candidate running on a platform of "non corruption" was elected to run the country. The reason is the underlying "corruption pact" responsible for running the country, argues Martín Rodríguez Pellecer in Nómada. Reforms and corruption investigations need to continue in order to purify the country's institutions, he writes, supporting calls for a protest on Wednesday.
  • Peruvian President Pedro Pablo Kuczynski reshuffled his cabinet yesterday, swearing in more conservative ministers in several key posts, in an attempt to woo the right-wing Popular Force which has a majority in Congress. Congress revoked its confidence in the outgoing cabinet on Friday, in the midst of conflict over a teachers strike and a school curriculum that stresses gender equality, reports Reuters. Kucsynski named Vice President Mercedes Araoz to be the new prime minister, a choice welcomed by Popular Force.
  • A Peruvian plan to virtually connect isolated indigenous communities with medical services is bumping up against a small flaw: many of the target villages lack stable electricity, much less internet, reports El País. The Cuninico community in the Peruvian Amazon is reporting symptoms related to contaminated water, and have been found to have abnormally high levels of mercury and cadmium in residents' blood, according to Amnesty International.
  • Less than two weeks after Hurricane Irma devastated the Caribbean, the region is bracing itself for Hurricane Maria, reports Reuters. A hurricane watch is now in effect for Puerto Rico, the US and British Virgin Islands, St Martin, St Barts, Saba, St Eustatius and Anguilla, reported the BBC this morning.
  • For those into visualizations: New assessments from the United Nations and Copernicus, a European Union program, show the damage to buildings and infrastructure on three of the hardest-hit islands: St. Martin, Anguilla and Barbuda, reports the New York Times. The destruction is such that some St. Martin's residents are wondering if it's worth rebuilding at all, or whether starting anew elsewhere might be better, reports the Miami Herald.
  • The Trump administration is considering closing down the U.S. Embassy in Cuba, after a string of unexplained health incidents with staff members in Havana, reports the Associated Press. Of the 21 medically confirmed US victims, some have permanent hearing loss or concussions while others have suffered nausea, headaches and ear-ringing. Some are struggling with concentration or common word recall. Cuba has denied any involvement or responsibility but stressed it is eager to help the US resolve the matter.
  • A location manager working for the Netflix series Narcos has been killed while searching for places to film when the show moves from Colombia to Mexico for its fourth season, reports the Guardian.
  • A wave of homicides is affecting previously peaceful tourism meccas in Mexico as criminal groups battle to control trafficking routes in the Baja California Peninsula and for dominance of local criminal enterprises, particularly the drug trade servicing tourists, reports the New York Times, in a piece that focuses on gaping inequality in Los Cabos.
  • A Mexican rural school teacher won an award for his work connecting a remote indigenous village to the internet, but was denied a visa application by U.S. officials because he was unable to provide a street address and because he does not have a bank account, reports the Guardian.
  • Thousands of people protested in Mexico City in response to the killing of a 19-year old student earlier this month after taking a Cabify -- an app-based taxi service -- home from a party, reports El País. Demonstrators emphasized an impunity rate of 90 percent when it comes to femicides in Mexico, and called for an end to the daily harassment and violence faced by women in the country. The National Institute of Statistics and Geography (Inegi) says five women are killed every day in Mexico, reports the BBC.
  • Brazilian meatpacking giant JBS SA named founder José Batista Sobrinho to replace his jailed son as chief executive, a move likely to disappoint shareholders who have called for outside management in the midst of a mounting corruption scandal centered on the company, reports the Wall Street Journal.
  • Aggressive processed food company marketing is contributing to an obesity epidemic in underdeveloped countries, reports the New York Times. "In many ways, Brazil is a microcosm of how growing incomes and government policies have led to longer, better lives and largely eradicated hunger. But now the country faces a stark new nutrition challenge: over the last decade, the country’s obesity rate has nearly doubled to 20 percent, and the portion of people who are overweight has nearly tripled to 58 percent. ... Brazil also highlights the food industry’s political prowess. In 2010, a coalition of Brazilian food and beverage companies torpedoed a raft of measures that sought to limit junk food ads aimed at children. The latest challenge has come from the country’s president, Michel Temer, a business-friendly centrist whose conservative allies in Congress are now seeking to chip away at the handful of regulations and laws intended to encourage healthy eating."